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Then came COVID-19, one of the biggest and most unpredictably disruptive events the global economy has experienced. It could reasonably be expected that the large reduction in ship calls in the first half of the year would translate to better overall port efficiency due to reductions in waiting times and other factors. In fact, IHS Markit's Port Efficiency Data shows that on a global level, average call sizes — the number of boxes exchanged per port call — grew by more than 4 percent on a global level in this year's first half compared with a year earlier, suggesting better load factors and proactive capacity management by operators. But landside capacity challenges resulting from truck shortages and the inability of some distribution centers to receive goods may have offset any efficiency gains resulting from lower overall volumes passing through ports and terminals in the first half of the year.